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Powder X-ray Diffractometry

powder X-ray diffractometry


Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.

X-ray powder diffraction is most widely used for the identification of unknown crystalline materials (e.g. minerals, inorganic compounds). Determination of unknown solids is critical to studies in geology, environmental science, material science, engineering and biology.
Other applications include:

*determination of the size of the cristallites and micro-distorsions

*determination of unit cell dimensions

*measurement of sample purity

*resolution and refinement of the structure

The method consists in submitting the powder compound to a monochromatic beam of X-rays and in collecting the diffraction spectrum which it emits; of the value θhkl of every line , we pull the interreticular distance of the corresponding family of plan ( hkl ) (Bragg relationship).
The spectrum of X ray diffraction of a crystallized compound has the following characteristics:
* The value of dhkl depends on parameters of the cell and on the crystal symetry.

* The intensities of the lines depend on the atomic contents of the cell (nature and positions of atoms)

The X-rays diffraction on powder is used for the studies in sciences of materials, environmental science, geology.

Every crystallized compound has a characteristic diagram

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