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Ribosome dynamics and mRNA turnover, a complex relationship under constant cellular scrutiny.

Christelle Morris, David Cluet, and Emiliano P Ricci (2021)

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA, 12(6):e1658.

Eukaryotic gene expression is closely regulated by translation and turnover ofmRNAs. Recent advances highlight the importance of translation in the control ofmRNA degradation, both for aberrant and apparently normal mRNAs. During translation,the information contained in mRNAs is decoded by ribosomes, one codon at a time, andtRNAs, by specifically recognizing codons, translate the nucleotide code into aminoacids. Such a decoding step does not process regularly, with various obstacles thatcan hinder ribosome progression, then leading to ribosome stalling or collisions.The progression of ribosomes is constantly monitored by the cell which has evolvedseveral translation-dependent mRNA surveillance pathways, includingnonsense-mediated decay (NMD), no-go decay (NGD), and non-stop decay (NSD), todegrade certain problematic mRNAs and the incomplete protein products. Recentprogress in sequencing and ribosome profiling has made it possible to discover newmechanisms controlling ribosome dynamics, with numerous crosstalks betweentranslation and mRNA decay. We discuss here various translation features criticalfor mRNA decay, with particular focus on current insights from the complexity of thegenetic code and also the emerging role for the ribosome as a regulatory huborchestrating mRNA decay, quality control, and stress signaling. Even if theinterplay between mRNA translation and degradation is no longer to be demonstrated,a better understanding of their precise coordination is worthy of furtherinvestigation. This article is categorized under: RNA Turnover and Surveillance >Regulation of RNA Stability Translation > Translation Regulation RNA Interactionswith Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes.

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