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Nanophysics

Informations pratiques


Discipline :

Physique

Niveau :

Master 2

Semestre :

S3b

Crédits ECTS :

6

Volume Horaire :

24h Cours

12h TDs

Responsable :

Aurelien Crut

 

Intervenants :

Aurelien Crut

Joel Bellessa

Objective

In 1959, Richard Feynman gave a visionary talk entitled “There is plenty of room at the bottom”, often regarded as the start of nanosciences, in which he showed that the ability of manipulating matter at the nanometer scale would enable encoding huge amounts of information onto increasingly small spaces and imagined microscopes with atomic resolution. Nanosciences have undergone a colossal development since, accomplishing most of Feynman’s dreams and progressively understanding the physical properties of nanostructures, which strongly differ from those of macroscopic objects due to the stronger impact of quantum and surface-related effects. Interestingly, size reduction has a very different impact depending on the considered physical property. For instance, a metal sphere of 50 nm diameter does not have the same “color” as the bulk material it is made of, but the mechanical vibrations of nanospheres as small as 1 nm (30 atoms) can still be accurately described using a continuum elastic model initially developed for planets. These lectures will address various physical properties of nano-objects, such as electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal ones. The theoretical modeling of these properties, based on either classical or quantum physics, will be introduced, highlighting the specific phenomena at the nanoscale. In each case, the experimental methods available to investigate them will be described, with a special focus on those addressing individual nano-objects, which have recently undergone a fast development.

Outline

Introduction

- What is nanoscience ?

- Bulk vs nano: new physical properties of nanostructures and confined systems.

- Fabrication methods, characterization tools and current hot topics in nanophysics.

Quantum confinement : semiconductor and metal nanostructures

- Electronic quantum confinement in semiconductors: quantum wells, wires and dots.

- Optical properties and luminescence of quantum dots.

- Recent advances and applications: from semiconductor heterostructures to single photon quantum emitters.

- Quantum confinement effects in metal nanoparticles.

Dielectric confinement: electromagnetism at nanoscale and plasmonics

- Modeling the electromagnetic response of nano-objects (local field effect, localized and delocalized surface plasmons, scattering and absorption, Mie theory and numerical methods).

- Measuring the optical response of nanostructures: from ensembles to single nano-object (near and far-field microscopies, electromagnetic interactions and collective effects, photonic crystals, metamaterials).

- Recent advances and applications: atmospheric aerosols, environmental applications, single-particle spectroscopy, imaging and sensing , nano-bio-devices.

Optical properties of nanostructures coupled to their environment

- Linear, nonlinear ultrafast and quantum plasmonics, biological and medical applications

- Radiation enhancement: Purcell effect, cavities, optical antennas.

- Strong light-matter coupling in solid systems (hybrid light-matter states: polaritons, applications to coherence and energy transfer).

Thermal and mechanical properties at the nanoscale

- Nano-mechanics and nano-acoustics: opto-mechanics, confined acoustic modes, analytical and numerical modeling and experiments.

- Some recent advances: mechanics of carbon nanotubes, validity of classical elasticity laws at the nanoscale, monitoring single nano-object vibrations,…

- Nano-thermics: role of interfacial thermal resistance at the nanoscale (Kapitza resistances), measuring heat transfer at the nanoscale (electrical and optical techniques).

 

Langue d'enseignement

Cours en français par défaut, l'anglais est possible si demandé. 

Modalité de l'examen

Ecrit