Agenda Read more

Mechanotransduction in Development

Personnel du RDP

Olivier HAMANT

DR INRA

Jan TRAAS

DR INRA

Christophe TREHIN

MC UCBL

Marjolaine MARTIN

TR ENS

Steve de BOSSOREILLE

CDD IR

Feng ZHAO

Postdoc INRA

Shogo Takatani

Post Doc HFSP (LTF)

Duy-Chi TRINH

Post Doc INRA

Juan ALONSO-SERRA

Post Doc INRA

Matthieu Cortes

Doctorant CIFRE (ANRT/PhaseView)

Leia COLIN

Doctorante ENS

Alice MALIVERT

Doctorante ENS

Paula Llanos

Visiting Scientist



2019


Fruleux A, Verger S, Boudaoud A. "Feeling Stressed or Strained? A Biophysical Model for Cell Wall Mechanosensing in Plants". Front Plant Sci. 10:757 (2019)
PMID: 31244875

Hamant O, Das P, Burian A. "Time-Lapse Imaging of Developing Shoot Meristems Using A Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope.". Methods Mol Biol. 1992 (2019)
PMID: 31148044

Zhao F, Chen WQ, Sechet J, Martin M, Bovio S, Lionnet C, Long Y, Battu V, Mouille G, Monéger F, Traas J. "Xyloglucans and microtubules synergistically maintain meristem geometry and phyllotaxis". Plant Physiol. (2019)
PMID: 31537749

2018


S. Verger, Y. Long, A. Boudaoud & O. Hamant* "A tension-adhesion feedback loop in plant epidermis". eLIFE 7 e34460 (2018)
PMID: 29683428

V. Mirabet*, P. Krupinski, O. Hamant, E.M. Meyerowitz, H. Jönsson & A. Boudaoud.* "The self-organization of plant microtubules inside the cell volume yields their cortical localization, stable alignment, and sensitivity to external cues". PLoS Comput. Biol. 14 e1006011 (2018)
PMID: 29462151

L. Hong#, M. Dumond#, M. Zhu, S. Tsugawa, C.-B. Li, A. Boudaoud, O. Hamant & A.H.K. Roeder* "Heterogeneity and Robustness in Plant Morphogenesis: From Cells to Organs". Annual Reviews of Plant Biology 69 469–495 (2018)
PMID: 29505739

Malivert A, Hamant O, Ingram G. "The contribution of mechanosensing to epidermal cell fate specification.". Curr Opin Genet Dev. (2018)
PMID: 30006098

Amélie Andres-Robin, Mathieu Reymond, Antoine Dupire, Virginie Battu, Nelly Dubrulle, Grégory Mouille, Valérie Lefebvre, Jerome Pelloux, Arezki Boudaoud, Jan Traas, Charles Patrick Scutt, Françoise Monéger "Evidence for the control of Arabidopsis gynoecium morphogenesis by ETTIN via cell wall dynamics". Plant Physiology American Society of Plant Biologists (2018)
PMID: 30237208

Negrutiu I, Hamant O "Anthropocène". In : Dictionnaire juridique des transitions écologiques. 104-107 eds: François Collart Dutilleul, Valérie Pironon, Agathe Van Lang (2018)

2017


S. Tsugawa, N. Hervieux, D. Kierzkowski, A.-L. Routier-Kierzkowska, A. Sapala, O. Hamant, R. S. Smith, A. H. K. Roeder, A. Boudaoud & C.-B. Li*. "Clones of cells switch from reduction to enhancement of size variability in Arabidopsis sepals.". Development. 144 4398-4405 (2017)
PMID: 29183944

Hervieux N, Tsugawa S, Fruleux A, Dumond M, Routier-Kierzkowska AL, Komatsuzaki T, Boudaoud A, Larkin JC, Smith RS, Li CB, Hamant O. "Mechanical shielding of rapidly growing cell buffers growth heterogeneity and contributes to organ shape reproducibility.". Curr Biol. 27 3468-3479.e4 (2017)
PMID: 29129534

2016


N. Hervieux, M. Dumond, A. Sapala, A.-L. Routier-Kierzkowska, D. Kierzkowski, A. Roeder, R.S. Smith, A. Boudaoud* & O. Hamant* "A mechanical feedback restricts sepal growth and shape in Arabidopsis". Curr Biol. 26 1019–1028 (2016)
PMID: 27151660

Tsugawa S, Hervieux N, Hamant O, Boudaoud A, Smith RS, Li CB, Komatsuzaki T. "Extracting subcellular fibrillar alignment with error estimation: Application to microtubules.". Biophys J. 110 1836-1844 (2016)
PMID: 27119643

Hong L, Dumond M, Tsugawa S, Sapala A, Routier-Kierzkowska AL, Zhou Y, Chen C, Kiss A, Zhu M, Hamant O, Smith RS, Komatsuzaki T, Li CB, Boudaoud A, Roeder AH. "Variable cell growth yields reproducible organ development through spatiotemporal averaging
.". Dev Cell. 38 15-32 (2016)
PMID: 27404356

Louveaux M, Rochette S, Beauzamy L, Boudaoud A, Hamant O. "The impact of mechanical compression on cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis: a quantitative pipeline.". Plant J. 88 328-342 (2016)
PMID: 27482848

"J Gruel, B Landrein, P Tarr, C Schuster, Y...". (2016)
J Gruel, B Landrein, P Tarr, C Schuster, Y Refahi, A Sampathkumar, O Hamant, EM Meyerowitz and H Jönsson (2016) An epidermis-driven mechanism positions and scales stem cell niches in plants. Sci. Adv. 2 : e1500989 (2016)

"Interplay between miRNA regulation and mechanical stress for CUC gene expression at the shoot apical meristem.". (2016)
PMID12345
F. Kateryna, B. Landrein & O. Hamant*. Interplay between miRNA regulation and mechanical stress for CUC gene expression at the shoot apical meristem. Plant Signal. Behav. 11, e1127497 (2016).

Louveaux M, Julien JD, Mirabet V, Boudaoud A, Hamant O. "Cell division plane orientation based on tensile stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 113 E4294-303 (2016)
PMID: 27436908

2015


Boudon F, Chopard J, Ali O, Gilles B, Hamant O, Boudaoud A, Traas J, Godin C. "A computational framework for 3D mechanical modeling of plant morphogenesis with cellular resolution.". PLoS Comput Biol. 11 e1003950 (2015)
PMID: 25569615

Beauzamy L, Louveaux M, Hamant O, Boudaoud A. "Mechanically, the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis behaves like a shell inflated by a pressure of about 1 MPa.". Front Plant Sci. 6 (2015)
PMID: 27074136

Landrein B, Refahi Y, Besnard F, Hervieux N, Mirabet V, Boudaoud A, Vernoux T, Hamant O. "Meristem size contributes to the robustness of phyllotaxis in Arabidopsis.". Journal of Experimental Botany 66 1317-24 (2015)
PMID: 25504644

Landrein B, Kiss A, Sassi M, Chauvet A, Das P, Cortizo M, Laufs P, Takeda S, Aida M, Traas J, Vernoux T, Boudaoud A, Hamant O. "Mechanical stress contributes to the expression of the STM homeobox gene in Arabidopsis shoot meristems.". Elife 4 (2015)
PMID: 26623515
Featured in F1000 (2★)

2014


Durand-Smet P, Chastrette N, Guiroy A, Richert A, Berne-Dedieu A, Szecsi J, Boudaoud A, Frachisse JM, Bendahmane M, Hamant O, Asnacios A. "A comparative mechanical analysis of plant and animal cells reveals convergence across kingdoms". Biophys J. 107 2237-44 (2014)
PMID: 25418292

Milani P, Mirabet V, Cellier C, Rozier F, Hamant O, Das P, Boudaoud A. "Matching patterns of gene expression to mechanical stiffness at cell resolution through quantitative tandem epifluorescence and nanoindentation.". Plant Physiol. 165 1399-1408 (2014)
PMID: 24924426

Sampathkumar A, Krupinski P, Wightman R, Milani P, Berquand A, Boudaoud A, Hamant O, Jönsson H, Meyerowitz EM. "Sub-cellular and supra-cellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells". Elife. 3 e01967 (2014)
PMID: 24740969

Boudaoud A, Burian A, Borowska-Wykręt D, Uyttewaal M, Wrzalik R, Kwiatkowska D, Hamant O. "FibrilTool, an ImageJ plugin to quantify fibrillar structures in raw microscopy images.". Nat Protoc. 9 457-63 (2014)
PMID: 24481272

"Sassi M, Ali O, Boudon F, Cloarec G, Abad U,...". (2014)
Sassi M, Ali O, Boudon F, Cloarec G, Abad U, Cellier C, Chen X, Gilles B, Milani P, Friml J, Vernoux T, Godin C, Hamant O, Traas J. (2014) An auxin-mediated shift toward growth isotropy promotes organ formation at the shoot meristem in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 24(19):2335-42.

"Traas J, Sassi M. (2014) Plant development:...". (2014)
Traas J, Sassi M. (2014) Plant development: from biochemistry to biophysics and back. Curr Biol. 24(6):R237-8.

"Landrein B. and Vernoux T. (2014) Auxin,...". (2014)
Landrein B. and Vernoux T. (2014) Auxin, chief architect of the shoot Apex. In Auxin and its role in plant development, Zazimalova et al., eds (Springer-Verlag Wien), pp. 191-212

"Hamant, O., Das, P. Burian, A. (2014)....". (2014)
Hamant, O., Das, P. Burian, A. (2014). Time-lapse imaging of developing meristems using confocal laser scanning microscope. METHODS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 1080, 111.

Besnard, F., Refahi, Y., Morin, V., Marteaux, B., Brunoud, G., Chambrier, P., Rozier F., Mirabet V., Legrand J., Lainé S., Thévenon E., Farcot E., Cellier C., Das P., Bishopp A., Dumas R., Parcy F., Helariutta Y., Boudaoud A., Godin C., Traas J., Guédon Y., & Vernoux, T. "Cytokinin signalling inhibitory fields provide robustness to phyllotaxis.". Nature. 505 417-21 (2014)
PMID: 24336201
Featured in F1000 (2★)

2013


"Wells DM, Laplaze L, Bennett MJ, Vernoux T....". (2013)
Wells DM, Laplaze L, Bennett MJ, Vernoux T. (2013) Biosensors for phytohormone quantification: challenges, solutions, and opportunities. Trends Plant Sci. 18(5):244-9. (Review)

"Henry A, Monéger F, Samal A, Martin OC. (2013)...". (2013)
Henry A, Monéger F, Samal A, Martin OC. (2013) Network function shapes network structure: the case of the Arabidopsis flower organ specification genetic network. Mol Biosyst. 2013 Jul 4;9(7):1726-35.

"Mirabet V, Besnard F, Vernoux T, Boudaoud A....". (2013)
Mirabet V, Besnard F, Vernoux T, Boudaoud A. (2012) Noise and robustness in phyllotaxis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8(2):e1002389.

"Sassi M, Wang J, Ruberti I, Vernoux T, Xu J....". (2013)
Sassi M, Wang J, Ruberti I, Vernoux T, Xu J. (2013) Shedding light on auxin movement: Light-regulation of polar auxin transport in the photocontrol of plant development. Plant Signal Behav. 18;8(3). (Review)

"Sassi M, Vernoux T. (2013) Auxin and self-organiza". (2013)
Sassi M, Vernoux T. (2013) Auxin and self-organization at the shoot apical meristem. J Exp Bot. 2013 Jun;64(9):2579-92. (Review)

"Traas J. (2013) Phyllotaxis. Development.140(2):24". (2013)
Traas J. (2013) Phyllotaxis. Development.140(2):249-53. (Review).

"Walker ML, Farcot E, Traas J, Godin C. (2013)...". (2013)
Walker ML, Farcot E, Traas J, Godin C. (2013) The flux-based PIN allocation mechanism can generate either canalyzed or diffuse distribution patterns depending on geometry and boundary conditions. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54802.

"Landrein B, Hamant O. How mechanical stress...". (2013)
Landrein B, Hamant O. How mechanical stress controls microtubule behavior and morphogenesis in plants: history, experiments and revisited theories. PLANT J. 75, 324-38

"Louveaux, M. and Hamant, O. (2013). The...". (2013)
Louveaux, M. and Hamant, O. (2013). The mechanics behind cell division. CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY 16, 774.

"Hamant, O. (2013). Cell Biology: Cytoskeleton...". (2013)
Hamant, O. (2013). Cell Biology: Cytoskeleton Network Topology Feeds Back on Its Regulation. CURRENT BIOLOGY 23, R963.

"Hamant, O. (2013). Widespread mechanosensing...". (2013)
Hamant, O. (2013). Widespread mechanosensing controls the structure behind the architecture in plants. CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY 16, 654.

"de Bossoreille de Ribou, S., Douam, F.,...". (2013)
de Bossoreille de Ribou, S., Douam, F., Hamant, O., Frohlich, M.W. and Negrutiu I. (2013). Plant science and agricultural productivity: why are we hitting the yield ceiling? PLANT SCIENCE 210, 159.

"Hamant, O. (2013). Integrative Cell Biology;...". (2013)
Hamant, O. (2013). Integrative Cell Biology; Katanin at the Crossroads. CURRENT BIOLOGY 23, R206.

"Landrein, B., Lathe, R., Bringmann, M.,...". (2013)
Landrein, B., Lathe, R., Bringmann, M., Vouillot, C., Ivakov, A., Boudaoud, A., Persson, S., and Hamant, O. (2013). Impaired Cellulose Synthase Guidance Leads to Stem Torsion and Twists Phyllotactic Patterns in Arabidopsis. CURRENT BILOGY 23, 895.

2012


"Reymond MC, Brunoud G, Chauvet A, Martínez-Garcia". (2012)
Reymond MC, Brunoud G, Chauvet A, Martínez-Garcia JF, Martin-Magniette ML, Monéger F, Scutt CP. (2012) A light-regulated genetic module was recruited to carpel development in Arabidopsis following a structural change to SPATULA. Plant Cell. 2012 Jul;24(7):2812-25

"Middleton AM, Farcot E, Owen MR, Vernoux T....". (2012)
Middleton AM, Farcot E, Owen MR, Vernoux T. (2012) Modeling regulatory networks to understand plant development: small is beautiful. Plant Cell. 24(10):3876-91. (review)

"Murray JA, Jones A, Godin C, Traas J. (2012)...". (2012)
Murray JA, Jones A, Godin C, Traas J. (2012) Systems analysis of shoot apical meristem growth and development: integrating hormonal and mechanical signaling. Plant Cell 24 (10):3907-19. (review)

"Band LR, Wells DM, Larrieu A, Sun J, Middleton". (2012)
Band LR, Wells DM, Larrieu A, Sun J, Middleton AM, French AP, Brunoud G, Sato EM, Wilson MH, Péret B, Oliva M, Swarup R, Sairanen I, Parry G, Ljung K, Beeckman T, Garibaldi JM, Estelle M, Owen MR, Vissenberg K, Hodgman TC, Pridmore TP, King JR, Vernoux T,* Bennett MJ.* (2012) Root gravitropism is regulated by a transient lateral auxin gradient controlled by a tipping-point mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 20;109(12):4668-73. (*corr authors)

"Brunoud G, Wells DM, Oliva M, Larrieu A,...". (2012)
Brunoud G, Wells DM, Oliva M, Larrieu A, Mirabet V, Burrow AH, Beeckman T, Kepinski S, Traas J, Bennett MJ, Vernoux T (2012) A novel sensor to map auxin response and distribution at high spatio-temporal resolution. Nature 482: 103-106.

"Uyttewaal M, Burian A, Alim K, Landrein B,...". (2012)
Uyttewaal M, Burian A, Alim K, Landrein B, Borowska-Wykręt D, Dedieu A, Peaucelle A, Ludynia M, Traas J, Boudaoud A, Kwiatkowska D, Hamant O. (2012) A katanin-dependent microtubule response to mechanical stress enhances growth gradients between neighboring cells in Arabidopsis. Cell 149, 439-451

"Sassi M, Lu Y, Zhang Y, Wang J, Dhonukshe P,...". (2012)
Sassi M, Lu Y, Zhang Y, Wang J, Dhonukshe P, Blilou I, Dai M, Li J, Gong X, Jaillais Y, Yu X, Traas J, Ruberti I, Wang H, Scheres B, Vernoux T, Xu J. (2012) COP1 mediates the coordination of root and shoot growth by light through modulation of PIN1- and PIN2-dependent auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Development. 2012 Sep;139(18):3402-12

"Bringmann M, Landrein B, Schudoma C, Hamant...". (2012)
Bringmann M, Landrein B, Schudoma C, Hamant O, Hauser MT, Persson S. (2012) Cracking the elusive alignment hypothesis: the microtubule-cellulose synthase nexus unraveled. TRENDS PLANT SCI. 17, 666-74

"Alim, K., Hamant, O. and Boudaoud, A. (2012)....". (2012)
Alim, K., Hamant, O. and Boudaoud, A. (2012). Regulatory role of cell division rules on tissue growth heterogeneity. FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCES 3,174.

2011


La Rota C, Chopard J, Das P, Paindavoine S, Rozier F, Farcot E, Godin C, Traas J, Monéger F "A data-driven integrative model of sepal primordium polarity in Arabidopsis". Plant Cell 23 4318-33 (2011)
La Rota C, Chopard J, Das P, Paindavoine S, Rozier F, Farcot E, Godin C, Traas J, Monéger F. (2011) A data-driven integrative model of sepal primordium polarity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 23(12):4318-33.

"Vernoux T, Brunoud G, Farcot E, Morin V, Van...". (2011)
Vernoux T, Brunoud G, Farcot E, Morin V, Van den Daele H, Legrand J, Oliva M, Das P, Larrieu A, Wells D, Guedon Y, Armitage L, Picard F, Guyomarc’h S, Cellier C, Parry G, Koumproglou R, Doonan JH, Estelle M, Godin C, Kepinski S, Bennett M, De Veylder L, Traas J (2011) The auxin signalling network translates dynamic input into robust patterning at the shoot apex. Mol Syst Biol 7: 508.

"Besnard F, Vernoux T, Hamant O (2011)...". (2011)
Besnard F, Vernoux T, Hamant O (2011) Organogenesis from stem cells in planta: multiple feedback loops integrating molecular and mechanical signals. Cell Mol Life Sci. 68(17) : 2885-906. (Review).

"Santuari L, Scacchi E, Rodriguez-Villalon A,...". (2011)
Santuari L, Scacchi E, Rodriguez-Villalon A, Salinas P, Dohmann EM, Brunoud G, Vernoux T, Smith RS, Hardtke CS. (2011) Positional information by differential endocytosis splits auxin response to drive Arabidopsis root meristem growth. Curr Biol. 21(22):1918-23.

"Milani P, Gholamirad M, Traas J, Arnéodo A,...". (2011)
Milani P, Gholamirad M, Traas J, Arnéodo A, Boudaoud A, Argoul F, Hamant O. (2011) In vivo analysis of local wall stiffness at the shoot apical meristem in Arabidopsis using atomic force microscopy. Plant J. 67(6):1116-1123.

"Besnard F, Vernoux T, Hamant O (2011)...". (2011)
Besnard F, Vernoux T, Hamant O (2011) Organogenesis from stem cells in planta: multiple feedback loops integrating molecular and mechanical signals. Cell Mol Life Sci. 68(17):2885-906. (Review).

"Romanel E, Das P, Amasino RM, Traas J,...". (2011)
Romanel E, Das P, Amasino RM, Traas J, Meyerowitz E, Alves-Ferreira M. (2011) Reproductive Meristem22 is a unique marker for the early stages of stamen development. Int J Dev Biol. 55(6):657-64.

"Santuari L, Scacchi E, Rodriguez-Villalon A,...". (2011)
Santuari L, Scacchi E, Rodriguez-Villalon A, Salinas P, Dohmann EM, Brunoud G, Vernoux T, Smith RS, Hardtke CS. (2011) Positional information by differential endocytosis splits auxin response to drive Arabidopsis root meristem growth. Curr Biol. 21(22):1918-23.

"Mirabet V, Das P, Boudaoud A, Hamant O....". (2011)
Mirabet V, Das P, Boudaoud A, Hamant O. (2011) The role of mechanical forces in plant morphogenesis. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 62:365-85.

2010


"Hamant O, Traas J (2010) The mechanics behind...". (2010)
Hamant O, Traas J (2010) The mechanics behind plant development – Tansley review. New Phytol.185(2):369-85.

"Hamant O, Pautot V. (2010) Plant development:...". (2010)
Hamant O, Pautot V. (2010) Plant development: a TALE story. C R Biol. 333(4):371-81.

"Fernandez R, Das P, Mirabet V, Moscardi E,...". (2010)
Fernandez R, Das P, Mirabet V, Moscardi E, Traas J, Verdeil JL, Malandain G, Godin C. (2010) Imaging plant growth in 4D: robust tissue reconstruction and lineaging at cell resolution. Nat Methods. 7(7):547-53.

"Boudaoud A. (2010) An introduction to the...". (2010)
Boudaoud A. (2010) An introduction to the mechanics of morphogenesis for plant biologists. Trends Plant Sci. 15(6):353-60.

"Cadot O, Touzé C, Boudaoud A. (2010) Linear...". (2010)
Cadot O, Touzé C, Boudaoud A. (2010) Linear versus nonlinear response of a forced wave turbulence system. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 82(4 Pt 2):046211.

"Hamant O, Traas J, Boudaoud A. (2010)...". (2010)
Hamant O, Traas J, Boudaoud A. (2010) Regulation of shape and patterning in plant development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 20(4):454-9.

"Heisler MG, Hamant O, Krupinski P, Uyttewaal...". (2010)
Heisler MG, Hamant O, Krupinski P, Uyttewaal M, Ohno C, Jönsson H, Traas J, Meyerowitz EM. (2010) Alignment between PIN1 polarity and microtubule orientation in the shoot apical meristem reveals a tight coupling between morphogenesis and auxin transport. PLoS Biol. 8(10):e1000516.

Fernandez R, Das P, Mirabet V, Moscardi E, Traas J, Verdeil JL, Malandain G, Godin C. "Imaging plant growth in 4D : robust tissue reconstruction and lineaging at cell resolution.". Nat Methods. 7 547-53 (2010)


2009


"Das, P., Toshiro Ito, Frank Wellmer, Teva...". (2009)
Das, P., Toshiro Ito, Frank Wellmer, Teva Vernoux, Annick Dedieu, Jan Traas, Elliot M. Meyerowitz (2009). Floral stem cell termination involves the direct regulation of AGAMOUS by PERIANTHIA. Development 136, 1605-1611

"Traas J, Hamant O (2009) From genes to shape:...". (2009)
Traas J, Hamant O (2009) From genes to shape: understanding the control of morphogenesis at the shoot meristem in higher plants using systems biology. C R Biol. 332: 974-985.

"Corson F, Hamant O, Bohn S, Traas J, Boudaoud...". (2009)
Corson F, Hamant O, Bohn S, Traas J, Boudaoud A, Couder Y (2009). Turning a plant tissue into a living cell froth through isotropic growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:8453-8458

"Uyttewaal M, Traas J, Hamant O (2009)...". (2009)
Uyttewaal M, Traas J, Hamant O (2009) Integrating physical stress, growth, and development. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 13(1):46-52.

2008


"Hamant O., Heisler MG., Jonsson H., Krupinski...". (2008)
Hamant O., Heisler MG., Jonsson H., Krupinski P., Uyttewaal M., Bokov P., Corson F., Sahlin P., Boudaoud A., Meyerowitz EM., Couder Y., Traas J. (2008) Developmental patterning by mechanical signals in Arabidopsis. Science 322 (5908), 1650-1655



Our team is studying the role of mechanical signals in plant development.

More specifically, we are addressing the following questions:
- Pattern of mechanical signals
- Transduction of mechanical signals
- Targets of mechanical signals
- Developmental implications of mechanical signals
- New tools

We are also involved in science-society projects, notably on the environmental question sustainability and in several art-science projects.

Check out what our past members are about!


Pattern of mechanical signals


We contributed to generate cell-based, mechanical models of floral morphogenesis (1)(2)(3). This is an important building block to predict patterns of mechanical stresses in growing tissues, and thus identify potential targets of such mechanical signals.


To validate the predicted stress patterns, we developed an original method, based on cell-cell adhesion defects to detect and quantify tensile stress intensity and direction in aerial tissues (4). For instance (left panel), transverse cracks (bright propidium iodide staining) in hypocotyls of the qua1-1 mutant, perturbed in pectin synthesis, reveal the presence of longitudinal growth-derived stress in the epidermis.


Transduction of mechanical signals


We started to investigate the molecular features of mechanotransduction pathways at the cell cortex. We had previously shown that microtubules align with maximal tensile stress. Using a biosensor for Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), we revealed the accumulation of PIP2 in meristem boundaries, a site under highly anisotropic stresses (see left, PIP2 heatmap at the shoot apical meristem) and further showed its induction after mechanical perturbations (5).

Tension causes membrane thinning, which in turn can lead to channel opening. In collaboration with Gwyneth Ingram, we contributed to show a role of the Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1)-dependent calcium channel activity in epidermis specification (6).


In addition to these regulators, we proposed that microtubules may align with tensile stress by default (7), meaning that membrane composition, channels or receptor-like kinase would rather have a modulating role in that response.

Targets of mechanical signals


In past work, we showed that cortical microtubules align along maximal tensile stress directions, thereby reinforcing cell walls through the guidance of cellulose deposition (8,9). Cortical microtubules also guide the orientation of the next division plane (through the preprophase band). Combining modeling and experiments, we formally showed that tensile stress prescribes cell division plane orientation (10).


Beyond the cell cortex, we started to analyze the impact of mechanical signals on gene expression. We found that the expression of key transcription factors (CUC3 and STM) is in part under mechanical control ((11), see left: STM induction after compression).

The nexus between mechanical signals at the cell cortex and gene expression may involve different pathways. We identified a coupling between the mechanical modification of cell walls and the expression of wall remodelers (12). More recently, we started to analyze the role of nucleus deformation in gene expression (in prep).

Developmental implications of mechanical signals

We unraveled a role of microtubule dynamics and response to stress in organ initiation (13) in organ shape robustness (14), in organ growth arrest (15) and in organ flatness (submitted).


Introducing “mechanical shielding”: Growth heterogeneity may distort final organ shapes (left). However, as adjacent cells respond to mechanical conflicts (notably by reinforcing their walls through microtubule reorientations, right), they locally buffer growth heterogeneities, thereby contributing to the reproducibility of final organ shapes. Adapted from (11).

Through collaborations, and using cotyledon jigsaw puzzle-shaped pavement cells as model systems, we identified a role of the microtubule response to stress in maintaining cell shapes (16), while proposing a role of tensile stress in initiating the waviness of anticlinal walls (17).


Conversely, we contributed to show that complex cell shape can keep stress levels low (Right: after treatment with the microtubule depolymerizing drug oryzalin, cell walls become weaker. Meristematic cells increase their size and the largest cells finally explode (stars) (18)).

From a screen for touch-insensitive plants, Liz Haswell identified a mutant in the RNA Polymerase-associated factor 1 complex (Paf1c), a central regulator of transcription. Touch being a form of mechanical perturbation, we contributed to characterize the mutant’s response to stress (19).


Interestingly, we found that Paf1c-dependent transcription contributes to the robustness of phyllotaxis (20) and flower termination (accepted ; see left: in the Paf1c mutant, a new inflorescence with secondary carpels (arrows) emerges from a silique (arrowhead)). Although at this stage it remains difficult to link mechanosensing with these phenotypes, these results open the possibility for crosstalks between transcriptional noise, mechanotransduction and floral patterning.

New tools

We generated resources in the form of expression maps for cell wall-related remodelers at the shoot apical meristem (12). We are currently building a gene atlas of the flower (in prep).


We adapted atomic force microscopy to probe wall stiffness on living plant tissues (21). We also adapted microindentation techniques to quantify the microtubule response to compression (22).


We are developing light sheet microscopy for plant aerial organs, adapting a set-up developed by Phaseview® in the frame of a CIFRE/ANRT contract (in prep).


Last, we developed several image analysis tools, including a cell separation analysis tool (23), a microtubule orientation analyzer (FibrilTool, 24) and a cell segmentation tool (SurfCut, 25).

Sustainability

A short presentation on lab sustainability (FASEB conference, July 2019, in english):

A short presentation on the anthropocene (APM Singapore, May 2019, in french):

Seven steps to make travel to scientific conferences more sustainable:
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02747-6

Check out:
http://anthropocene-curriculum.org
http://institutmichelserres.ens-lyon.fr
https://labos1point5.org/

Art-science


Vahan Soghomonian
http://www.ens-lyon.fr/evenement/campus/fytolit-skhole-exposition-de-vahan-soghomonian


COAL: la table et le territoire
https://www.projetcoal.org/coal/2018/05/13/r%C3%A9sidence-selfood/


Tiphaine Calmettes
http://agenda-pointcontemporain.com/la-melee-ecole-normale-superieure-de-lyon/

Past members

Benoit Landrein:
Mechanical signals in seed development (RDP, Lyon, France)
http://www.ens-lyon.fr/RDP/spip.php?rubrique15&lang=en#projMECA

Pascale Milani:
Bioméca (Lyon, France)
http://www.bio-meca.com/Qui_Sommes_Nous/

Thomas Stanislas:
Plasma Membrane and Mechano-Perception in Plant Development (Univ. Tuebingen, Germany)
https://uni-tuebingen.de/en/faculties/faculty-of-science/departments/interdepartmental-centres/center-for-plant-molecular-biology/res/developmental-genetics/stanislas/

Magalie Uyttewaal:
Spatial control of cell division (IJPB, Versailles, France)
https://www-ijpb.versailles.inra.fr/fr/bc/equipes/cyto/index.html

Stéphane Verger:
Mechanics and Dynamics of Cell to Cell Adhesion in Plants (SLU, Umea, Sweden)
https://www.upsc.se/researchers/5435-verger-stephane-mechanics-and-dynamics-of-cell-to-cell-adhesion-in-plants.html

References

1. F. Boudon et al., A computational framework for 3D mechanical modeling of plant morphogenesis with cellular resolution. PLoS Comput. Biol. 11 (2015)
2. O. Ali, J. Traas, Force-Driven Polymerization and Turgor-Induced Wall Expansion. Trends Plant Sci. 21, 398–409 (2016).
3. H. Oliveri, J. Traas, C. Godin, O. Ali, Regulation of plant cell wall stiffness by mechanical stress: a mesoscale physical model. J. Math. Biol. 78, 625–653 (2019).
4. S. Verger, Y. Long, A. Boudaoud, O. Hamant, A tension-adhesion feedback loop in plant epidermis. eLife. 7 (2018)
5. T. Stanislas et al., A phosphoinositide map at the shoot apical meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Biol. 16, 20 (2018).
6. D. Tran et al., A mechanosensitive Ca2+ channel activity is dependent on the developmental regulator DEK1. Nat. Commun. 8, 1009 (2017).
7. O. Hamant et al., Are microtubules tension sensors? Nat Commun. 10, 2360 (2019)
8. O. Hamant et al., Developmental patterning by mechanical signals in Arabidopsis. Science. 322, 1650-5 (2008).
9. M. Uyttewaal et al., Mechanical stress acts via katanin to amplify differences in growth rate between adjacent cells in Arabidopsis. Cell. 149:439-51 (2012)
10. M. Louveaux, J.-D. Julien, V. Mirabet, A. Boudaoud, O. Hamant, Cell division plane orientation based on tensile stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113, E4294-4303 (2016).
11. B. Landrein et al., Mechanical stress contributes to the expression of the STM homeobox gene in Arabidopsis shoot meristems. eLife. 4, e07811 (2015).
12. A. Armezzani et al., Transcriptional induction of cell wall remodelling genes is coupled to microtubule-driven growth isotropy at the shoot apex in Arabidopsis. Dev. Camb. Engl. 145 (2018)
13. M. Sassi et al., An auxin-mediated shift toward growth isotropy promotes organ formation at the shoot meristem in Arabidopsis. Curr. Biol. CB. 24, 2335–2342 (2014).
14. N. Hervieux et al., Mechanical Shielding of Rapidly Growing Cells Buffers Growth Heterogeneity and Contributes to Organ Shape Reproducibility. Curr. Biol. CB. 27, 3468–3479.e4 (2017).
15. N. Hervieux et al., A Mechanical Feedback Restricts Sepal Growth and Shape in Arabidopsis. Curr. Biol. 26, 1019–1028 (2016)
16. A. Sampathkumar et al., Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells. eLife. 3 (2014)
17. M. Majda et al., Mechanochemical Polarization of Contiguous Cell Walls Shapes Plant Pavement Cells. Dev. Cell. 43, 290–304.e4 (2017).
18. A. Sapala et al., Why plants make puzzle cells, and how their shape emerges. eLife. 7 (2018)
19. G. S. Jensen, K. Fal, O. Hamant, E. S. Haswell, The RNA Polymerase-Associated Factor 1 Complex Is Required for Plant Touch Responses. J. Exp. Bot. 68, 499–511 (2017).
20. K. Fal et al., Phyllotactic regularity requires the Paf1 complex in Arabidopsis. Dev. Camb. Engl. 144, 4428–4436 (2017).
21. P. Milani et al., In vivo analysis of local wall stiffness at the shoot apical meristem in Arabidopsis using atomic force microscopy. Plant J. 67, 1116-23 (2011)
22. M. Louveaux, S. Rochette, L. Beauzamy, A. Boudaoud, O. Hamant, The impact of mechanical compression on cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis: a quantitative pipeline. Plant J. Cell Mol. Biol. 88, 328–342 (2016).
23. S. Verger, G. Cerutti, O. Hamant, An Image Analysis Pipeline to Quantify Emerging Cracks in Materials or Adhesion Defects in Living Tissues. Bio-Protoc. 8, e3036 (2018).
24. A. Boudaoud et al., FibrilTool, an ImageJ plug-in to quantify fibrillar structures in raw microscopy images. Nat. Protoc. 9, 457–463 (2014).

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