Objectif du cours
The first part of the course is devoted to the economic mechanisms that shape the within- and between city spatial organisation. This will typically answer the following questions.
Why do cities exist and induce an uneven spatial distribution of income and of land and commodity prices? How can cities of different size co-exist within integrated economic areas? What does shape the city internal structure, in terms of housing types and income segregation? What is the impact of people and goods mobility on spatial concentration? What is the role of local public policies and of land use regulation on spatial disparities?
The second part of the course moves to the empirical studies that evaluate the gains and costs from agglomeration. A special emphasis is put on the impact on spatial disparities of individual location choices made by workers that are heterogeneous in skills. The balance between income gains and costs of living is studied, typically assessing whether cities are too large or too small. Studies about the value of consumption amenities (restaurants, cultural life, climate,…) will be presented too. Last, and depending on time available, either the evaluation of place-based policies trying to revive deprived neighbourhoods and/or the impact of transport infrastructure on local development will be presented.
Microeconomics under perfect and imperfect competition (Micro I and II).
Basics of applied econometrics (including panel approaches and notions of instrumentation).
Lecturer : Pierre-Philippe Combes
Slides are circulated before the lectures such that students can concentrate on the course and participate through questions.
Work from one week to the other consists in carefully re-reading the slides and asking further clarification at the next course if needed. Extra readings will be suggested too.
The exam has two parts. A three-hour in-class essay will have to explain and criticise under the light of the course a newspaper article about an urban issue in a developed or a developing country. Then a couple of days later, a 20-minute oral examination will take place and some aspects of the essay will be deepen, and a couple of extra questions about the rest of the course will be asked. The essay will count for 75% of the total grade and the oral examination for 25%.
Preliminary list of references
Combes, P.-P., T. Mayer, and J.-F. Thisse, 2008. Economic Geography (ch. 1 and 2), Princeton University Press.
McMillen, D. and J. McDonald, 2011. Urban Economics and Real Estate; Theory and Policy (ch. 1 and 2), 2nd ed. Wiley.
O'Sullivan, A., 2012. Urban Economics (ch. 1 and 2), 8th ed. McGraw-Hill.
Brueckner, J., 2011. Lectures on Urban Economics (ch. 1), MIT Press.
Combes, P.-P., T. Mayer, and J.-F. Thisse, 2008. Economic Geography (ch. 2), Princeton University Press.
Duranton, G., Puga, D., 2004. Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies. In: Henderson, V., Thisse, F. (Eds.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, vol. 4. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 2063–2117.
Fujita, M., 1990. Urban Economic Theory: Land Use and City Size (ch. 2, 3, 4), Cambridge University Press.
Fujita, M. and J.-F. Thisse, Jacques-François. Economics of Agglomeration: Cities, Industrial Location, and Globalization. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013.
Combes, P.-P., G. Duranton, and H. Overman, 2005. Agglomeration and the adjustment of the spatial economy, Papers in Regional Science, 84(3), 311-349.
Moretti, E. (2011). Local labour markets. In O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics4.
Combes, P.-P., T. Mayer, and J.-F. Thisse, 2008 (chap. 6, 7, 8). Economic Geography, Princeton University Press.
Combes, P.P. and L. Gobillon, 2015. The empirics of agglomeration economies. In Duranton, Gilles, Henderson, Vernon, and Strange, Will, eds., Handbook of Urban and Regional Economics 5A. North-Holland, Amsterdam.
Glaeser, E. L., and D. C. Maré. 2001. Cities and skills. Journal of Labor Economics 19:316–42.
Jaffe, A. B. (1989). Real effects of academic research, American Economic Review 79(5): 957-970.
Jaffe, A. B., Trajtenberg, M. and Henderson, R. (1993). Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations, Quarterly Journal of Economics 108(3): 577-598.
Albouy, D., 2008. Are big cities really bad places to live? Improving quality-of-life estimates across cities. Working Paper 14472, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Combes, P-P., Duranton, G., Gobillon, L., 2019. The Costs of Agglomeration: House and Land Prices in French Cities, Review of Economic Studies, forthcoming.
Handbury, J.. Are poor cities cheap for everyone? Non-homotheticity and the cost of living across US cities, 2013. Mimeograph, Wharton University.
Handbury, J. and D. Weinstein, 2015. Goods prices and availability in cities. Review of Economic Studies, 82(1): 258-296.
Moretti, E., 2013. Real wage inequality, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 5(1): 65-103.
Briant, A., M. Lafourcade, and B. Schmutz, 2015. Can Tax Breaks Beat Geography? Lessons from the French Enterprise Zone Experience, American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 7(2), 88-124.
Criscuolo, C., R. Martin, H.G. Overman, and J. Van Reenen, 2019. Some Causal Effects of an Industrial Policy, American Economic Review forthcoming.
Givord, P., S. Quantin, and C. Trevien, 2018. A long-term evaluation of the first generation of French urban enterprise zones, Journal of Urban Economics 105(C), 149-161.
Kline, P. and E. Moretti, 2014. Local Economic Development, Agglomeration Economies, and the Big Push: 100 Years of Evidence from the Tennessee Valley Authority, Quarterly Journal of Economics 129, 275-331.
Neumark, D. and H. D. Simpson, 2015. Place-based policies, in: G. Duranton, J.V. Henderson, W. Strange (eds), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics 5A, North-Holland, Amsterdam.
Baum-Snow, N., 2007. Did highways cause suburbanization? Quarterly Journal of Economics 122, 775-805.
Duranton, G. and M. Turner, 2016. The fundamental law of road congestion: Evidence from US cities, American Economic Review 101(6), 2616-2652.
Duranton, G. and M. Turner, 2012. Urban growth and transportation, Review of Economic Studies, 1407-1440.
Duranton, G., Morrow, P. M., and M. Turner, 2014. Roads and trade: Evidence from the US, Review of Economic Studies 81(2), 681-724.
Faber, B., 2014. Trade integration, market size, and industrialization: Evidence from China's national trunk highway system. Review of Economic Studies 81(3), 1046-1070.