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The last 50 bibliographies

Ribosomes guide pachytene piRNA formation on long intergenic piRNA precursors.

Author(s) : Sun Y, Zhu J, Xie L, Li Z, Meduri R, Zhu X, Song C, Chen C, Ricci E, Weng Z, Li X,
Journal : Nat Cell Biol
2020
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs essential for fertility. In adult mouse testes, most piRNAs are derived from long single-stranded RNAs lacking annotated open reading frames (ORFs). The mechanisms underlying how piRNA sequences are defined during the cleavages of piRNA precursors remain elusive. Here, we show that 80S ribosomes translate the 5'-proximal short ORFs (uORFs) of piRNA precursors. The MOV10L1/Armitage RNA helicase then facilitates the translocation of ribosomes into the uORF downstream regions (UDRs). The ribosome-bound UDRs are targeted by piRNA processing machinery, with the processed ribosome-protected regions becoming piRNAs. The dual modes of interaction between ribosomes and piRNA precursors underlie the distinct piRNA biogenesis requirements at uORFs and UDRs. Ribosomes also mediatepiRNA processing in roosters and green lizards, implying that this mechanism is evolutionarily conserved in amniotes. Our results uncover a function for ribosomes on non-coding regions of RNAs and reveal the mechanisms underlying howpiRNAs are defined.

A quantitative tri-fluorescent yeast two-hybrid system: from flow cytometry to in-cellula affinities

Author(s) : Cluet D, Amri I, Vergier B, Léault J, Audibert A, Grosjean C, Calabrési D, Spichty M,
Journal : Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
2020
We present a technological advancement for the estimation of the affinities of Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) in living cells. A novel set of vectors is introduced that enables a quantitative yeast two-hybrid system based on fluorescent fusion proteins. The vectors allow simultaneous quantification of the reaction partners (Bait and Prey) and the reporter at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. We validate the applicability of this system on a small but diverse set of PPIs (eleven protein families from six organisms) with different affinities; the dissociation constants range from 117 pM to 17 µM. After only two hours of reaction, expression of the reporter can be detected even for the weakest PPI. Through a simple gating analysis, it is possible to select only cells with identical expression levels of the reaction partners. As a result of this standardization of expression levels, the mean reporter levels directly reflect the affinities of the studied PPIs. With a set of PPIs with known affinities, it is straightforward to construct an affinity ladder that permits rapid classification of PPIs with thus far unknown affinities. Conventional software can be used for this analysis. To permit automated analysis, we provide a graphical user interface for the Python-based FlowCytometryTools package.

A quantitative tri-fluorescent yeast two-hybrid system: from flow cytometry to in-cellula affinities

Author(s) : Cluet D, Amri I, Vergier B, Léault J, Audibert A, Grosjean C, Calabrési D, Spichty M,
Journal : Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
2020
We present a technological advancement for the estimation of the affinities of Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) in living cells. A novel set of vectors is introduced that enables a quantitative yeast two-hybrid system based on fluorescent fusion proteins. The vectors allow simultaneous quantification of the reaction partners (Bait and Prey) and the reporter at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. We validate the applicability of this system on a small but diverse set of PPIs (eleven protein families from six organisms) with different affinities; the dissociation constants range from 117 pM to 17 µM. After only two hours of reaction, expression of the reporter can be detected even for the weakest PPI. Through a simple gating analysis, it is possible to select only cells with identical expression levels of the reaction partners. As a result of this standardization of expression levels, the mean reporter levels directly reflect the affinities of the studied PPIs. With a set of PPIs with known affinities, it is straightforward to construct an affinity ladder that permits rapid classification of PPIs with thus far unknown affinities. Conventional software can be used for this analysis. To permit automated analysis, we provide a graphical user interface for the Python-based FlowCytometryTools package.

The Lid/KDM5 histone demethylase complex activates a critical effector of the oocyte-to-zygote transition.

Author(s) : Torres-Campana D, Kimura S, Orsi G, Horard B, Benoit G, Loppin B,
Journal : PLoS Genet
2020
Following fertilization of a mature oocyte, the formation of a diploid zygote involves a series of coordinated cellular events that ends with the first embryonic mitosis. In animals, this complex developmental transition is almost entirely controlled by maternal gene products. How such a crucial transcriptional program is established during oogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we haveperformed an shRNA-based genetic screen in Drosophila to identify genes requiredto form a diploid zygote. We found that the Lid/KDM5 histone demethylase and itspartner, the Sin3A-HDAC1 deacetylase complex, are necessary for sperm nuclear decompaction and karyogamy. Surprisingly, transcriptomic analyses revealed that these histone modifiers are required for the massive transcriptional activation of deadhead (dhd), which encodes a maternal thioredoxin involved in sperm chromatin remodeling. Unexpectedly, while lid knock-down tends to slightly favorthe accumulation of its target, H3K4me3, on the genome, this mark was lost at the dhd locus. We propose that Lid/KDM5 and Sin3A cooperate to establish a local chromatin environment facilitating the unusually high expression of dhd, a key effector of the oocyte-to-zygote transition.

Modeling Edar expression reveals the hidden dynamics of tooth signaling center patterning

Author(s) : Sadier A, Twarogowska M, Steklíková k, Hayden L, Lambert A, Schneider P, Laudet V, Hovorakova M, Calvez V, Pantalacci S,
Journal : PLOS Biology
2019

Developmental and comparative transcriptomic identification of iridophore contribution to white barring in clownfish.

Author(s) : Salis P, Lorin T, Lewis V, Rey C, Marcionetti A, Escande M, Roux N, Besseau L, Salamin N, Semon M, Parichy D, Volff J, Laudet V,
Journal : Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
2019
Actinopterygian fishes harbor at least eight distinct pigment cell types, leading to a fascinating diversity of colors. Among this diversity, the cellular origin of the white color appears to be linked to several pigment cell types such as iridophores or leucophores. We used the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris, which has a color pattern consisting of white bars over a darker body, to characterize thepigment cells that underlie the white hue. We observe by electron microscopy that cells in white bars are similar to iridophores. In addition, the transcriptomic signature of clownfish white bars exhibits similarities with that of zebrafish iridophores. We further show by pharmacological treatments that these cells are necessary for the white color. Among the top differentially expressed genes in white skin, we identified several genes (fhl2a, fhl2b, saiyan, gpnmb, and apoD1a) and show that three of them are expressed in iridophores. Finally, we show by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis that these genes are critical for iridophore developmentin zebrafish. Our analyses provide clues to the genomic underpinning of color diversity and allow identification of new iridophore genes in fish.

Single cell RNA-seq identifies the origins of heterogeneity in efficient cell transdifferentiation and reprogramming

Author(s) : Francesconi M, Di Stefano B, Berenguer C, de Andrés-Aguayo L, Plana-Carmona M, Mendez-Lago M, Guillaumet-Adkins A, Rodriguez-Esteban G, Gut M, Gut I, Heyn H, Lehner B, Graf T,
Journal : eLife
2019

Rouse model with transient intramolecular contacts on a timescale of seconds recapitulates folding and fluctuation of yeast chromosomes.

Author(s) : Socol M, Wang R, Jost D, Carrivain P, Vaillant C, Le Cam E, Dahirel V, Normand C, Bystricky K, Victor J, Gadal O, Bancaud A,
Journal : Nucleic Acids Res
2019
DNA folding and dynamics along with major nuclear functions are determined by chromosome structural properties, which remain, thus far, elusive in vivo. Here,we combine polymer modeling and single particle tracking experiments to determine the physico-chemical parameters of chromatin in vitro and in living yeast. We find that the motion of reconstituted chromatin fibers can be recapitulated by the Rouse model using mechanical parameters of nucleosome arrays deduced from structural simulations. Conversely, we report that the Rouse model shows some inconsistencies to analyze the motion and structural properties inferred from yeast chromosomes determined with chromosome conformation capture techniques (specifically, Hi-C). We hence introduce the Rouse model with Transient InternalContacts (RouseTIC), in which random association and dissociation occurs along the chromosome contour. The parametrization of this model by fitting motion and Hi-C data allows us to measure the kinetic parameters of the contact formation reaction. Chromosome contacts appear to be transient; associated to a lifetime of seconds and characterized by an attractive energy of -0.3 to -0.5 kBT. We suggest attributing this energy to the occurrence of histone tail-DNA contacts and notice that its amplitude sets chromosomes in 'theta' conditions, in which they are poised for compartmentalization and phase separation.

Physical and functional interaction between SET1/COMPASS complex component CFP-1 and a Sin3S HDAC complex in C. elegans.

Author(s) : Beurton F, Stempor P, Caron M, Appert A, Dong Y, Chen R, Cluet D, Coute Y, Herbette M, Huang N, Polveche H, Spichty M, Bedet C, Ahringer J, Palladino F,
Journal : Nucleic Acids Res
2019
The CFP1 CXXC zinc finger protein targets the SET1/COMPASS complex to non-methylated CpG rich promoters to implement tri-methylation of histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4me3). Although H3K4me3 is widely associated with gene expression, the effects of CFP1 loss vary, suggesting additional chromatin factors contribute tocontext dependent effects. Using a proteomics approach, we identified CFP1 associated proteins and an unexpected direct link between Caenorhabditis elegansCFP-1 and an Rpd3/Sin3 small (SIN3S) histone deacetylase complex. Supporting a functional connection, we find that mutants of COMPASS and SIN3 complex components genetically interact and have similar phenotypic defects including misregulation of common genes. CFP-1 directly binds SIN-3 through a region including the conserved PAH1 domain and recruits SIN-3 and the HDA-1/HDAC subunit to H3K4me3 enriched promoters. Our results reveal a novel role for CFP-1 in mediating interaction between SET1/COMPASS and a Sin3S HDAC complex at promoters.