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Chromosomal and nuclear genome architecture – an evolutionary perspective

Orateur :

Stefan Mueller, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Germany

Salle :

C023 (RDC LR6 côté CECAM)

Quand :

22/10/2008 à 11:00

Sujet :

The interplay between the linear arrangement of a genome and its three-dimensional organization in the interphase nucleus with respect to the local genomic landscape, replication timing, transcriptional activity, cell cycle and cell differentiation has been the subject of numerous investigations. In recent years, some evolutionarily conserved principles of functional significance have emerged. Firstly, the replication timing dependent spatial positioning of chromatin appears to be widely conserved among metazoans. Secondly, the genomes of warm-blooded vertebrates show a non-random spatial arrangement with respect to the local GC content. Most prominently, both in animal and plant nuclei, chromosomes occupy distinct regions, so-called chromosome territories (CTs), which display non-random radial positions within the nucleus.

In this presentation I will present an overview of recent technical advancements related to the analysis of 3D nuclear genome organisation using multi-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation. I will then summarize the present knowledge on the interplay between the linear organization of vertebrate genomes, metaphase chromosome structure and the non-random spatial arrangement of entire chromosomes, of chromosome sub-regions and of individual loci in the interphase nucleus. The impact of translocations, fusions, fissions and inversions on the 3D-conformation of chromosome territories and on the positioning of breakpoint flanking loci will be discussed. Finally I will provide examples where non-random nuclear neighbourhoods may act as triggers for chromosome rearrangements.

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