The condensin complex is a key driver of chromosome condensation in mitosis. The condensin-dependent assembly of highly compacted chromosomes is essential for the faithful transmission of the genome during cell division. Many independent studies have established that gene transcription impacts the association of condensin with chromosomes, but the molecular mechanisms involved are still unclear. This is especially true as a number of sometimes contradictory mechanisms have been proposed so far. Here, we show in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that condensin accumulates specifically in the vicinity of a subset of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes in the absence of the conserved DNA/RNA helicase Sen1. We demonstrate that Sen1 is a cofactor of RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) required for efficient transcription termination. These results are important because they fundamentally challenge the pre-existing view that RNAPIII terminates transcription autonomously. Strikingly, we show that the RNAPIII transcription termination defects are directly responsible for the accumulation of condensin in the absence of Sen1. This indicates that the quality control of transcription impacts the distribution of condensin on mitotic chromosomes. We propose that above a certain density threshold, the accumulation of RNAPIII constitutes a barrier for the translocation of condensin on chromosomes.